Hyperparathyroidism is the condition in which there is increase production of parathyroid hormone. It is usually due to tumour in either of parathyroid glands or can be due to generalized proliferation of all parathyroid glands (Hyperplasia). Symptoms of Hyperparathyroidism include:-
- Excessive fatigability
- Bony pains or spontaneous fractures
- Recurrent renal stones
- Gastric indigestion or pain abdomen
- Mental irritability
- In severe cases it can cause pancreatitis, Heart failure or kidney failure also.
It can be classified as:
Primary: It is usually characterised by high calcium, Low Phosphorus and High PTH levels and is usually due to parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. Surgery is the definitive cure to this disease.
Secondary: It is usually due to hyperplasia of parathyroid gland secondary to some systemic disease. Common causes includes Vitamin D deficiency, Chronic renal failure, Malabsorption etc. It is characterised by low or normal calcium, high or normal Phosphorus and high PTH. Usually medical management is warranted in most of cases.
Tertiary: It occurs after long standing secondary hyperparathyroidism when one of the hyperplastic gland become autonomous and start secreting parathyroid hormone which is not under control of body. Usually associated with High Calcium, Phosphorus and PTH levels. Surgical intervention is the standard of care in most of these cases.